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Friedman, J. P. (1987).  Barron's Dictionary of Business Terms.
"Management Style: the leadership method a manager uses in administering an organization. For example, it may be said a manager has a very informal style, which signifies that the manager does not practice close supervision and believes in open communication." (p. 342)
Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde A. C. (1987).  Classics of Public Administration.
"The philosophy of management by directive and control—regardless of whether it is hard or soft—is inadequate to motivate because the human needs on which this approach relies are today unimportant motivators of behavior. Direction and control are essentially useless in motivating people whose important needs are social and egoistic. Both the hard and the soft approach fail today because they are simply irrelevant to the situation." (p. 260)
Covey, S. R. (1992).  Principle Centered Leadership.
"If we use an authoritarian or benevolent authoritarian approach to problem-solving, we slip into a kind of condescending or vertical communication pattern. If people sense that we are 'talking down' to them or that our motive is to manipulate them into making a change, they will resist our efforts." (p. 222)
Hodson, R., & Sullivan T. A. (1995).  Social Organization of Work.
"Alienation occurs when work provides inadequately for human needs for identity and meaning. Work is alienating to the extent that one does it only from economic necessity, not from its intrinsic pleasures." (p. 56)
"A common response to alienating work is passive resistance through making work into a game (Burawoy, 2000), restricting one`s output (Roy, 1952), or focusing on aspects of work tangential to the main productive activity (Collinson, 2003). For instance, workers often adjust to alienating situations by focusing on interactions with their peers. Managers label such behavioral responses 'poor performance.' However, such behaviors do not necessarily result from incompetence or laziness: rather, they may be straightforward responses to having a job that is tedious, repetitive, or alienating. These responses are difficult to predict from workers' levels of job satisfaction or commitment. Workers who are very committed to their work may be the ones most likely to resist alienating conditions. Those who are less committed may simply exit or grudgingly suffer in silence." (p. 68)
Davidow, W. H., & Uttal B. (1990).  Total Customer Service : The Ultimate Weapon.
"The hard truth is that there's little place for the traditional middle manager in companies that go all out to serve customers. The skills that most such managers have mastered—protecting their fiefdoms, proving their importance by forcing all information and communications to flow through their offices, meticulously enforcing bureaucratic controls—become serious liabilities. Yet no matter how flat the organization, no company can function without middle management.

The solution service leaders often take is to redefine the middle manager's job. Instead of acting like a boss, he is encouraged to behave like a helper." (p. 106)

Smith, G. (2000).  Work Rage: Identify the Problems, Implement the Solutions.
"Ocassionally, I encounter and organization that really does practice what it preaches, or 'walks the talk'. But I can say with great certainty that the companies that really do a lot of talking and walking are few and far between. There is a lot of talking but very little walking out there in the big wide world of management.
The potential for rage in these controlling organizations is going to be higher, and for several reasons. When you have a mentoring, coaching, and collaborative management style, employees tend more toward higher productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness, and there is a happier workplace atmosphere. Conversely, when there is a domineering, controlling, or even bullying environment, the employees feel threatened, are less productive, feel highly stressed and are unhappy." (p. 53)

See also: leadership, control, management style, management system

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Concept Scheme: business culture/management vocabulary

URI: business culture/management vocabulary


  • Concept: management
    • preferred: management
    • definition: the act of managing something; "he was given overall management of the program"; "is the direction of the economy a function of government?"
    • related: leadership
    • related: control
    • narrower: management_style
    • narrower: management_system
    • closeMatch:
    • keyword-191
    • linked content:
      • sense: direction
      • sense: management
      • management
      • in scheme:
      • gloss: the act of managing something; "he was given overall management of the program"; "is the direction of the economy a function of government?"
      • hyponym of:
      • synset id: 101133281
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