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Conference Paper
Ruth, R. (1996).  Working with Problems of Narcissism in Entrepreneurial Organizations.
"Already weakened by environmental forces not facilitative of psychological development, and further constrained by widespread idealization of narcissistic relating as a kind of counterphobic social defense, workers and managers in entrepreneurial organizations, and entrepreneurs and their organizations themselves, seem almost dragged by inertia into object-delinked modes of work. How to generate creativity and productive developmental momentum out of such frightening chaos is the task."
Gilley, K. (1997).  The Alchemy of Fear, How to Break the Corporate Trance and Create Your Company's Successful Future.
"One would expect that, when a group of bright people come together to make a decision or analyze a problem, their combined abilities would result in a group intelligence greater than that of any individual. Instead, most groups experience exactly the opposite—inverse intelligence. The resulting group intelligence is significantly less than that of any individual of the individuals within it." (p. 80)
Fromm, E. (1973).  The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness.
"Power can mean power over people, or it can mean power to do things...Many writers, unfortunately, make use of this ambiguous meaning of the words 'power' and 'control', and in order to smuggle in the praise of 'power over' they identify it with 'power to'. Moreover, lack of control does not mean lack of any kind of organization, but only of those kinds in which the control is exploitative and the controlled cannot control the controllers." (p. 394)

"Being powerless and hence in danger of being enslaved, or having power and hence in danger of becoming dehumanized, are two evils. Which is to be shunned the most is a matter of religious and moral or political conviction." (p. 395)

Manning, G., Curtis K., & McMillen S. (1995).  Building Community: The Human Side of Work.
"The best organizations consider the unique characteristics of each person: the needs of some for stability and others for variety; the needs of some for latitude and others for structure; the dependable delivery of some and the creative ideas of others; the open-mindedness of some and the rigid allegiances of others. What is consistent is that all people are treated with respect and dignity."
Friedman, M., & Arnett R. C. (1986).  Communication and Community: implications of Martin Buber's Dialogue.
"Shunning has been used for centuries as a paradoxical technique of collectively disciplining a person to bring him or her back into the group. This method may be the lesser of evils, however. As one my friends keenly observed, shunning is better than death, which has been used in some groups to eliminate the deviant. Given these two bleak choices, most of us would probably choose being ignored, But we should not minimize the pain one can feel from such exclusion. As William james stated, there is no more fiendish behavior than to act as if 'another did not exist.'"
Gonzales, L. (2009).  Everyday Survival: Why Smart People Do Stupid Things.
"If individual human beings can form forceful and persistent mental models, organizations or groups of people seem to be able to do so on an almost unimaginable scale. A person has secret doubts and fears. An organization has the emotional life of a reptile." (p. 93)
Fromm, E. (1968).  The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil.
"The very need to achieve something creative makes it necessary to leave the closed circle of group solipsism and to be interested in the object it wants to achieve." (p. 94)
Schwartz, H. S. (1990).  Narcissistic Process and Corporate Decay: The Theory of the Organizational Ideal.
"When work, the productive process, becomes display, its meaning becomes lost. Its performance as part of the organizational drama becomes the only meaning it has. Accordingly, the parts it plays in the organization's transactions with the world become irrelevant. When this happens, work loses its adaptive function and becomes mere ritual. At the same time, the rituals that serve to express the individual's identification with the organization ideal, especially those connected with rank, come to be infused with significance for the individual. They become sacred. Thus, reality and appearance trade places. The energy that once went into the production of goods and services of value to others is channelled into the dramatization of a narcissistic fantasy in which the organization's environment is merely a stage setting." (p. 61)
Glass, J. M. (1995).  Psychosis and Power: Threats to democracy in the self and the group.
"It is critical that we take the 'different' into account, that we allow for its expression, refuse to be pushed into cynicism by negative passion, learn not to hate difference, respect the 'distinctive features' of what is other." (p. 9)
Feinberg, M. (1995).  Why Smart People Do Dumb Things: Lessons from the New Science of Behavioral Economics.
"Mature people develop—and enjoy—what Thorstein Veblen called 'the instinct of workmanship'. Oliver Wendell Holmes talked about pride in one's work: 'To hammer out as compact and as solid a piece of work as one can, to try to make it first rate.'—this is the goal of all mature people." (p.228)

See also: organizational psychodynamics, groupthink, loyalty, belonging, group exclusivity, teams, community, individuality

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SKOS concepts and relations

Concept Scheme: business culture/management vocabulary

URI: business culture/management vocabulary


  • Concept: group
    • preferred: group
    • definition: any number of entities (members) considered as a unit
    • narrower: organizational_psychodynamics
    • narrower: groupthink
    • narrower: loyalty
    • narrower: belonging
    • narrower: group_exclusivity
    • narrower: teams
    • narrower: community
    • closeMatch:
    • keyword-41
    • antonym: individuality
    • linked content:
      • sense: group
      • sense: grouping
      • group
      • in scheme:
      • gloss: any number of entities (members) considered as a unit
      • hyponym of:
      • synset id: 100031264
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