Biblio

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Book
Bourne, P. D. E. J. (2001).  The Anxiety & Phobia Workbook: A Step-by-Step Program for Curing Yourself of Extreme Anxiety, Panic Attacks, and Phobias.
"lt has been my repeated experience that clients experience relief from anxiety as well as phobias when they come to feel that their life has meaning, purpose, and a sense of direction. Until you discover something larger than self-gratification--something which gives your life a sense of purpose--you may be prone to feelings of boredom and a vague sense of confinement because you are not realizing all your potential. This sense of confinement can be a potent breeding ground for anxiety, phobias, and even panic attacks." (p, 40)
Gilbert, P. (1992).  Depression: the evolution of powerlessness.
"There is, therefore, an archetypal fear of outsiders and also of being made an outsider. Many films and other forms of art reflect this basic fear. Furthermore, group membership is an important aspect of self-esteem and self-identity (see Abrams et al., 1990, and Chapter 7 this volume). Another interesting observation is that following loss of rank an animal (e.g., in gorillas) may take up a solitary life. Once someone has involuntarily fallen in rank (been deposed) they can be ejected from groups quite quickly. Group living, therefore, runs parallel with the need to feel part of a group, supported by a group, and hence free from potential persecution. Lone primates often find it difficult to be accepted in a group unless they can make some bid for dominance or attract allies. In humans also non-acceptance can elicit aggression, but submission/ withdrawal/ avoidance is probably more common." (p. 181) "Entrapments. In some cases a person is trapped in a poor relationship that she/he cannot get tree from (feeling too guilty at leaving, or too fearful) or is trapped by economic circumstances (e.g., a single mother's dependency on parents, or inability to give up one's job because of economic responsibilities--this is more common in men than is recognised and can lead to anger at the family). This is the equivalent of blocked escape. It is associated with the idea of 'caging', being confined and limited in actual movement (especially away from an aversive situation). Helplessness does not convey the sense of being caged and trapped although at another level they are probably equivalent. Entrapments focus more on the theme of 'freedom of movement' and blocked escape. Events can occur that make one acutely aware not only of how little one can do, but also of how 'confined one is'. Fresh start events would probably reduce the sense of being trapped/caged (Brown et al., 1988)." (p.444)
Bowker, G. C., & Star S. L. (2000).  Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences.
"Information technology operates through a series of displacements, from action to representation, from the politics of conflict to the invisible politics of forms and bureaucracy. Decades ago, Max Weber wrote of the iron cage of bureaucracy. Modern humans, he posited, are constrained at every juncture from true freedom of action by a set of rules of our own making. Some of these rules are formal, most are not. Information infrastructure adds another level of depth to the iron cage. In its layers, and in its complex interdependencies, it is a gossamer web with iron at its core." (p. 320)