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Gilbert, P. (1992).  Depression: the evolution of powerlessness.
"There is, therefore, an archetypal fear of outsiders and also of being made an outsider. Many films and other forms of art reflect this basic fear. Furthermore, group membership is an important aspect of self-esteem and self-identity (see Abrams et al., 1990, and Chapter 7 this volume). Another interesting observation is that following loss of rank an animal (e.g., in gorillas) may take up a solitary life. Once someone has involuntarily fallen in rank (been deposed) they can be ejected from groups quite quickly. Group living, therefore, runs parallel with the need to feel part of a group, supported by a group, and hence free from potential persecution. Lone primates often find it difficult to be accepted in a group unless they can make some bid for dominance or attract allies. In humans also non-acceptance can elicit aggression, but submission/ withdrawal/ avoidance is probably more common." (p. 181)

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