Sort by: Author Title [ Type  (Desc)] Year
Filters: Keyword is panopticism  [Clear All Filters]
Foucault, M. (1995).  Discipline and punish : the birth of the prison.
"Disciplinary exercised through its invisibility; at the same time it imposes on those whom it subjects a principle of compulsory visibility. In discipline, it is the subjects who have to be seen. Their visibility assures the hold of the power that is exercised over them. It is the fact of being constantly seen, of being able always to be seen, that maintains the disciplined individual in his subjection. And the examination is the technique by which power, instead of emitting the signs of its potency, instead of imposing its mark on its subjects, holds them in a mechanism of objectification. In this space of domination, disciplinary power manifests its potency, essentially, by arranging objects. The examination is, as it were, the ceremony of this objectification." (p. 187) "There are two images then, of discipline. At one extreme, the discipline-blockade, the enclosed institution, established on the edges of society, turned inwards towards negative functions: arresting evil, breaking communications, suspending time. At the other extreme, with panopticism, is the discipline-mechanism: a functional mechanism that must improve the exercise of power by making it lighter, more rapid, more effective, a design of subtle coercion for a society to come. The movement from one project to the other, from a schema of exceptional discipline to one of a generalized surveillance, rests on a historical transformation: the gradual extension of the mechanisms of discipline throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, their spread throughout the whole social body, the formation of what might be called in general the disciplinary society." (p. 209) "The practice of placing individuals under 'observation' is a natural extension of a justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination procedures. Is it surprising that the cellular prison, with its regular chronologies, forced labour, its authorities of surveillance and registration, its experts in normality, who continue to multiply the functions of the judge, should have become the modern instrument of penalty? Is it surprising that the prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals, which all resemble prisons?" (p. 227)
Beauchamp, T. L. (1992).  Ethical Theory and Business.
"Those who question the legitimacy of the modern corporation altogether because of the evils of excessive corporate power usually believe that the corporation should have no right to decide how things are going to be for its constituents. While we believe that each person has the right to be treated not as a means to some corporate end but as an end in itself, we would not go so far as to say the corporation has no rights whatsoever. Our more moderate stance is that if the modern corporation requires treating others as a means to an end, then these others must agree on, and hence participate (or choose not to participate) in, the decisions to be used as such." (p. 78) "In summary, while record keeping is, by no means, a new activity, it appears that information technology has changed record keeping in the following ways: (1) it has made a new scale of information gathering possible; (2) it has made new kinds of information gathering possible, especially transaction generated information; (3) is has made a new scale of information distribution and exchange possible; (4) the effect of erroneous information can be magnified; and (5) information about events in one's life may endure much longer than ever before. These five changes make the case for the claim that the world we live in is more like a panopticon than ever before.... "Information is created, collected, and exchanged because organizations can use it to further their interests and activities. Information about individuals is used to make decisions about those individuals, and often the decisions profoundly affect the lives of those individuals whom the information is about." (p. 434)
Zuboff, S. (1988).  In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power.
"Techniques of control in the workplace became increasingly important as the body became the central problem of production. The early industrial employers needed to regulate, direct, constrain, anchor, and channel bodily energies for the purposes of sustained, often repetitive, productive activity. Still struggling to establish their legitimate authority, they invented techniques designed to control the laboring body. The French historian Michel Foucault has argued that these new techniques of industrial management laid the groundwork for a new kind of society, a 'disciplinary society', one in which bodily discipline, regulation, and surveillance are taken for granted." (p. 319) "Bentham's extensive plans for reform of prison management created both controversy and interest within the British Parliament. Though his management proposals were not implemented, the central principle of continuous observation made possible by technical arrangements was to influence the administrative and architectural orientation of bureaucratic organizations from schools, to hospitals, to workplaces in which individuals are taken up as unique problems to be managed and measured up against appropriate norms:"
Panopticism is the general principle of a new 'political anatomy' whose object and end are not the relations of sovereignty but the relations of discipline....What are required are mechanisms that analyze distributions, gaps, series, combinations, and which use instruments that render visible, record, differentiate and compare....It is polyvalent in its application....Whenever one is dealing with a multiplicity of individuals on whom a task or a particular form of behavior must be imposed, the panoptic schema may be used.
(p. 322)
"Techniques of control and the panoptic power they convey offer one such alternative. Information systems can alter many of the classic contingencies of the superior-subordinate relationship, providing certain information about the subordinates' behavior while eliminating the necessity of face-to-face engagement. They can transmit the presence of the omniscient observer and so induce compliance without the messy conflict-prone exertions of reciprocal relations." (p. 323)
Aronowitz, S., & Difazio W. (1994).  The Jobless Future: Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work.
"In the past twenty-five years, computer-mediated work, despite its potential for reintegrating design and execution, has been employed, typically but not exclusively, in a manner that reproduces the hierarchies of managerial authority. The division between intellectual and manual labor and the degradation of manual labor that was characteristic of the industrializing era have been simultaneously shifted to the division between the operators and the professional-managerial employees, but also the division between the "lower" operating and "higher" expert orders broadly reproduces within intellectual labor itself the old gulf separating manual and intellectual labor in the mechanical era. Hierarchy is frequently maintained despite the integrative possibilities of the technology. Under this regime of production, the computer provides the basis for greatly extending the system of discipline and control inherited from nineteenth-century capitalism. Many corporations have used it to extend their Panopticonic world-view; that is, they have deployed the computer as a means of employee surveillance that far exceeds the most imperious dreams of the Panopticon's inventor, Jeremy Bentham, or any nineteenth- or early twentieth-century capitalist." (p. 89) The incorporation of machines into the labor process in order to make the activity of laboring easier has failed to restore laborers to their humanity. Instead it has further subordinated workers to the machine and to the forces of nature by imposing a regime in which the process of re(production) mimics the physical processes of animal existence and dominates life." (p. 333)
Glass, J. M. (1995).  Psychosis and Power: Threats to democracy in the self and the group.
"It is critical that we take the 'different' into account, that we allow for its expression, refuse to be pushed into cynicism by negative passion, learn not to hate difference, respect the 'distinctive features' of what is other." (p. 9) "Bentham's panoptical vision served as an icon for a type of punishment society accepted as essential for its well-being. Panoptical power, however, is only one form of power, and the weakness in Foucault's argument is that it overlooks political concepts of power which depend in large measure on leaders' ideological and public pronouncements and on the willingness of followers to embrace the messages, intents, and weaknesses of their leaders." (p. 112) "When groups act according to the narcissistic dictates of the ego ideal, when they seem focused only on a set of assumptions that reinforce closed systems of belief, groups have the potential of becoming psychotic. To put it another way, the collective regresses toward more absolutist forms of thinking." (p. 196)