Biblio

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Deming, E. W. (1993).  The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education.
"The most important act that a manager can take is to understand what it is that is important to an individual. Everyone is different from everyone else. All people are motivated to a different degree extrinsically and intrinsically. This is why it is so vital that managers spend time to listen to an employee to understand whether he is looking for recognition by the company, or by his peers, time at work to publish, flexible working hours, time to take a university course. In this way, a manager can provide positive outcomes for his people, and may even move some people toward replacement of extrinsic motivation with intrinsic motivation." (p. 115) "One is born with a natural inclination to learn. Learning is a source of innovation. One inherits a right to enjoy his work. Good management helps us to nurture and preserve these positive innate attributes of people." "The outcome of management by results is more trouble, not less. What is wrong? Certainly we need good results, but management by results is not the way to get good results. It is action on outcome, not on the causes of the results--i.e., on the system. Costs are not causes: costs come from causes (Gipsie Ranney, 1988). In place of management by results, it is better to understand and improve the system." (p. 34)
Deming, E. W. (1982).  Out of the Crisis.
"Basically, what is wrong is that the performance appraisal or merit rating focuses on the end product, at the end of the stream, not on leadership to help people. This is a way to avoid the problems of people. A manager becomes, in effect, a manager of defects.... The effect is exactly the opposite of what the words promise. Everyone propels himself forward, or tries to, for his own good, on his own life preserver. The organization is the loser. Merit rating rewards people that do well in the system. It does not reward attempts to improve the system. Don't rock the boat." "Management by objective leads to the same evil. Management by the numbers likewise. Management by fear would be a better name, someone in Germany suggested. The effect is devastating: 'It nourishes short-term performance, annihilates long-term planning, builds fear, demolishes team-work, nourishes rivalry and politics. It leaves people bitter, crushed, bruised, battered, desolate, despondent, dejected, feeling inferior, some even depressed, unfit for work for weeks after receipt of rating, unable to comprehend why they are inferior.' It is unfair, as it ascribes to the people in a group differences that may be caused totally by the system that they work in." (p. 102) "The cause of a point outside the limit of variation of the system on the bad side may be permanent; it may be ephemeral. Someone that can not learn the job would provide an example of a permanent circumstance. The company hired him for this job; hence has a moral obligation to put him into the right job." (p. 115) Compare with Collis 1: "The right person should be matched with the right job, not only initially but continuously."
Deming, E. W. (1982).  Quality Productivity and Competitive Position.
"The economic loss from fear is appalling. It is necessary, for better quality and productivity, that people feel secure." (p. 33)