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Williams, K. D., Forgas J. P., & Hippel W. V. (2005).  The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Abstract
"Ostracism threatens:
  • our need to belong...
  • our need for maintaining high self-esteem, because it carries with it the implicit or explicit accusation that we have done something wrong.
  • our need for control over interactions with others, as well as our 'interpretive control' when the reason for our exclusion is ambiguous."
  • may threaten our need to maintain our belief in a meaningful existence, because it reminds us of our fragile temporary existence and even our own death.

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