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Amado, G., Ambrose A., & Amato R. (2001).  The Transitional Approach to Change.
"It might be argued that once a system has moved into a situation that is basically regressive, it does not take long for a vicious spiral to commence that rapidly reduces the effectiveness of the system by diminishing the contribution of individuals in the system and generates suspicion and hostile, destructive forces. Such a view must be qualified, however. The structure and viability of many systems is based on regression—that is, on the dependency of the people within them. Such systems can be called 'totalitarian'. They all institutionalize, or have people unconsciously internalize, a system of values, norms, and rules that have to be followed precisely. Their functioning can be compared to that of closed systems, such as bureaucracies, sects, and some organizations with a high degree of imposed common ideology and culture. If such a system is to be efficient, it is important to realize that the price to pay is the relinquishing of individual autonomy, responsibility, and creativity and the oppression of subcultures (Amado, 1988)." (p. 109)

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